Tag: SQL

Select Latest Data from Table

Problem Given the following database table: DATA (id, data_date, data_value). The id field is not unique. Write an SQL statement to select the latest value for each id Solution Group rows by id then select rows with maximum date Code Here is the code Select id, max(data_date) data_date, data_value from DATA group by id

How to Find Duplicates in a Table using SQL

Problem Write an SQL statement to find rows with duplicate column values in a database table Solution You need to group by the column containing the duplicate values then select only the groups with count greater than 1 Code Here is the code in SQL Select field, count(field) from table group by field having count(field)

Delete Table vs Truncate Table

Question What is the difference between delete table and truncate table operation Answer Delete table operation deletes all rows in the table. The deletion of rows is logged in the transaction log. On the other hand truncate table operation similarly deletes all rows in the table but it does not log the deletion of rows

Sql Query Optimization

Question Suggest few areas to inspect to improve the performance of a slow query Answer Here are few areas to check: Tables have no indexes. Database indexes improve query performance dramatically on the expense of slow writes and extra space Tables are scanned in full. Scanning huge tables degrades performance Table statistics are not updated.

Where vs Having SQL

Question What is the difference between WHERE and HAVING clauses. Answer The WHERE clause restricts which rows are returned while the HAVING clause operates on groups of rows. HAVING is always used with GROUP BY and must have a function it restricts. The rule says if a condition refers to an aggregate function put that

Sql Views Advantages

Question What is a database view. Mention few database sql views advantages Answer A view is a virtual table (not part of the physical schema) composed from the result set of a stored query. Views contain dynamic content. This means if you modify the physical tables from which the view is constructed then the data shown in subsequent invocations of the

SQL All Keyword

All Keyword in SQL Given the following database table: employee(emp_name, emp_salary) write an SQL statement to print the employee name with the highest salary Solution Using the max aggregate function will give us the maximum salary but it does not give us the name of the employee who has the maximum salary. The solution is

SQL Having Clause

Problem You have the following database table: employee (emp_name, emp_age, emp_department) Write an SQL statement to calculate the average age of employees who are older than 30 years old for each department. Do not display the average if the number of employees used in the calculation is less than 3. Solution You need to use

Dependencies in database

Database functional dependencies example Given the relation LDS (L, D, S) with the following functional dependencies definitions: L ->D and (S, D) -> L LDS is decomposed into two relations: LD (L, D) and SL (S, L) which are populated as follows: LD: L1   D1 L2   D2 L3   D1 SL: S1   L1 S2   L2 Inserting the